4G to IMS call flow – Register to IMS – part 1

Posted: August 26, 2010 in technical
Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,

So, let’s talk about 4G and IMS. This will describe the registration to the IMS core, when the IMS equipment is located in a Visited Network, in roaming.

The normal lines (and arrows) represent the main protocol:

– while in the 4G environment (UE, eNodeB, MME, SGW, PGW): it is eGTP (GTPv2-C) protocol

– while in the IMS environment(P-CSCF, I-CSCF, S-CSCF, HSS): it is plain IP or Diameter protocol

The dotted lines (and arrows) represent the inner IP protocol messages, which are encapsulated in GTPv1-U header.

The specs impacted by this are:

TS 23.401 : for the 4G UE equipment Initial Attach to the network

TS 23.203 : description of the IP-CAN Session Establishment procedures

TS 23.228 : description of the P-CSCF Discovery procedures

TS 21.905 : vocabulary for 3GPP Specifications

TS 29.061 : interworking of 4G and IMS

TS 29.212 : PCC (Policy and Charging Control) over Gx interface

TS 29.213 : PPC signaling flows and QoS parameters

TS 24.229 : IP multimedia call control over SIP and SDP

RFC 3261 : SIP – Session Initiation Protocol

The IMS protocols are just too many and diverse to list here all the TSs and RFCs related to them.

4G-IMS

Let’s describe – shortly, very shortly – the messages exchanged here:

[Some of the message descriptions are simply and shamelessly copy-pasted from the spec :p  ]

1. Attach Request [TS 23.401]

The UE initiates the Attach procedure by the transmission, to the eNodeB, of an Attach Request (IMSI or old GUTI, last visited TAI (if available), UE Core Network Capability, UE Specific DRX parameters, PDN Type, Protocol Configuration Options, Ciphered Options Transfer Flag, Attach Type, KSIASME, NAS sequence number, NAS-MAC, additional GUTI, P-TMSI signature) message together with RRC parameters indicating the Selected Network and the old GUMMEI. The old GUTI may be derived from a P TMSI and RAI. IMSI shall be included if the UE does not have a valid GUTI or a valid P TMSI available. The UE stores the TIN in detached state. If the UE’s TIN indicates “GUTI” or “RAT-related TMSI” and the UE holds a valid GUTI then the old GUTI indicates this valid GUTI. If the UE’s TIN indicates “P TMSI” and the UE holds a valid P TMSI and related RAI then these two elements are indicated as the old GUTI. Mapping a P TMSI and RAI to a GUTI is specified in TS 23.003 [9]. If the UE holds a valid GUTI and the old GUTI indicates a GUTI mapped from a P-TMSI and RAI, then the UE indicates the GUTI as additional GUTI. If the old GUTI indicates a GUTI mapped from a P-TMSI and RAI and the UE has a valid P-TMSI signature associated to it, the P-TMSI signature shall be included.
If available, the last visited TAI shall be included in order to help the MME produce a good list of TAIs for any subsequent Attach Accept message. Selected Network indicates the PLMN that is selected for network sharing purposes. The RRC parameter “old GUMMEI” takes its value from the “old GUTI” contained in the Attach Request. UE Network Capability is described in UE capabilities, see clause 5.11.
If the UE has valid security parameters, the Attach Request message shall be integrity protected by the NAS-MAC in order to allow validation of the UE by the MME. KSIASME, NAS sequence number and NAS-MAC are included if the UE has valid EPS security parameters. NAS sequence number indicates the sequential number of the NAS message. If the UE does not have a valid EPS security association, then the Attach Request message is not integrity protected. In this case the security association is established in step 5a. The UE network capabilities indicate also the supported NAS and AS security algorithms. PDN type indicates the requested IP version (IPv4, IPv4/IPv6, IPv6). Protocol Configuration Options (PCO) are used to transfer parameters between the UE and the PDN GW, and are sent transparently through the MME and the Serving GW. The Protocol Configuration Options may include the Address Allocation Preference indicating that the UE prefers to obtain an IPv4 address only after the default bearer activation by means of DHCPv4. If the UE intends to send PCO which require ciphering (e.g., PAP/CHAP usernames and passwords) or send an APN, or both, the UE shall set the Ciphered Options Transfer Flag and send PCO or APN or both only after authentication and NAS security setup have been completed (see below). If the UE has UTRAN or GERAN capabilities, it should send the NRSU in the PCO to indicate the support of the network requested bearer control in UTRAN/GERAN. Attach Type indicates “Handover” when the UE has already an activated PDN GW/HA due to mobility with non-3GPP accesses.

2. Attach Request [TS 23.401]

The eNodeB derives the MME from the RRC parameters carrying the old GUMMEI and the indicated Selected Network. If that MME is not associated with the eNodeB or the old GUMMEI is not available, the eNodeB selects an MME as described in clause 4.3.8.3 on “MME selection function”. The eNodeB forwards the Attach Request message to the new MME contained in a S1-MME control message (Initial UE message) together with the Selected Network and TAI+ECGI of the cell from where it received the message to the new MME.

3. Create Session Request [TS 23.401]

If a subscribed PDN address is allocated for the UE for this APN, the PDN subscription context contains the UE’s IPv4 address and/or the IPv6 prefix and optionally the PDN GW identity. In case the PDN subscription context contains a subscribed IPv4 address and/or IPv6 prefix, the MME indicates it in the PDN address. For Attach Type indicating “Initial Attach”, if the UE does not provide an APN, the MME shall use the PDN GW corresponding to the default APN for default bearer activation. If the UE provides an APN, this APN shall be employed for default bearer activation. For Attach type indicating “Handover”, if the UE provides an APN, the MME shall use the PDN GW corresponding to the provided APN for default bearer activation, If the UE does not provide an APN, and the subscription context from HSS contains a PDN GW identity corresponding to the default APN, the MME shall use the PDN GW corresponding to the default APN for default bearer activation. The case where the Attach type indicates “Handover” and the UE does not provide an APN, and the subscription context from HSS does not contain a PDN GW identity corresponding to the default APN constitutes an error case. If the attach type indicates “Initial Attach” and the selected PDN subscription context contains no PDN GW identity the new MME selects a PDN GW as described in clause 4.3.8.1 on PDN GW selection function (3GPP accesses). If the PDN subscription context contains a dynamically allocated PDN GW identity and the Attach Type does not indicate “Handover” the MME may select a new PDN GW as described in clause PDN GW selection function, e.g. to allocate a PDN GW that allows for more efficient routing. The new MME selects a Serving GW as described in clause 4.3.8.2 on Serving GW selection function and allocates an EPS Bearer Identity for the Default Bearer associated with the UE. Then it sends a Create Session Request (IMSI, MSISDN, MME TEID for control plane, PDN GW address, PDN Address, APN, RAT type, Default EPS Bearer QoS, PDN Type, APN-AMBR, EPS Bearer Identity, Protocol Configuration Options, Handover Indication, ME Identity, User Location Information (ECGI), MS Info Change Reporting support indication, Selection Mode, Charging Characteristics, Trace Reference, Trace Type, Trigger Id, OMC Identity, Maximum APN Restriction, Dual Address Bearer Flag, the Protocol Type over S5/S8) message to the selected Serving GW.

The RAT type is provided in this message for the later PCC decision. The subscribed APN AMBR for the APN is also provided in this message. The MSISDN is included if provided in the subscription data from the HSS. Handover Indication is included if the Attach type indicates handover. Selection Mode indicates whether a subscribed APN was selected, or a non-subscribed APN sent by the UE was selected.. Charging Characteristics indicates which kind of charging the bearer context is liable for. The MME may change the requested PDN type according to the subscription data for this APN as described in clause 5.3.1.1. The MME shall set the Dual Address Bearer Flag when the PDN type is set to IPv4v6 and all SGSNs which the UE may be handed over to are Release 8 or above supporting dual addressing, which is determined based on node pre-configuration by the operator. The Protocol Type over S5/S8 is provided to Serving GW which protocol should be used over S5/S8 interface.

 

The charging characteristics for the PS subscription and individually subscribed APNs as well as the way of handling Charging Characteristics and whether to send them or not to the P GW is defined in TS 32.251 [44]. The MME shall include Trace Reference, Trace Type, Trigger Id, and OMC Identity if S GW and/or P GW trace is activated. The MME shall copy Trace Reference, Trace Type, and OMC Identity from the trace information received from the HLR or OMC.

The Maximum APN Restriction denotes the most stringent restriction as required by any already active bearer context. If there are no already active bearer contexts, this value is set to the least restrictive type (see clause 15.4 of TS 23.060 [7]). If the P GW receives the Maximum APN Restriction, then the P GW shall check if the Maximum APN Restriction value does not conflict with the APN Restriction value associated with this bearer context request. If there is no conflict the request shall be allowed, otherwise the request shall be rejected with sending an appropriate error cause to the UE.

NOTE 7:The Dual Address Bearer Flag is not used when the Protocol Type over S5/S8 is PMIP.

4. Create Session Request [TS 23.401]
The Serving GW creates a new entry in its EPS Bearer table and sends a Create Session Request (IMSI, MSISDN, APN, Serving GW Address for the user plane, Serving GW TEID of the user plane, Serving GW TEID of the control plane, RAT type, Default EPS Bearer QoS, PDN Type, PDN Address, subscribed APN-AMBR, EPS Bearer Identity, Protocol Configuration Options, Handover Indication, ME Identity, User Location Information (ECGI), MS Info Change Reporting support indication, Selection Mode, Charging Characteristics, Trace Reference, Trace Type, Trigger Id, OMC Identity, Maximum APN Restriction, Dual Address Bearer Flag) message to the PDN GW indicated by the PDN GW address received in the previous step. After this step, the Serving GW buffers any downlink packets it may receive from the PDN GW without sending a Downlink Data Notification message to the MME until it receives the Modify Bearer Request message in step 23 below. The MSISDN is included if received from the MME.
5. IP-CAN Session Establishment [TS 23.203] – next episode
6. Create Session Response [TS 23.401]
The P GW creates a new entry in its EPS bearer context table and generates a Charging Id. The new entry allows the P GW to route user plane PDUs between the S GW and the packet data network, and to start charging. The way the P GW handles Charging Characteristics that it may have received is defined in TS 32.251 [44].
The PDN GW returns a Create Session Response (PDN GW Address for the user plane, PDN GW TEID of the user plane, PDN GW TEID of the control plane, PDN Type, PDN Address, EPS Bearer Identity, EPS Bearer QoS, Protocol Configuration Options, Charging Id, Prohibit Payload Compression, APN Restriction, Cause, MS Info Change Reporting Action (Start) (if the PDN GW decides to receive UE’s location information during the session), APN-AMBR) message to the Serving GW. The PDN GW takes into account the received PDN type, the Dual Address Bearer Flag and the policies of operator when the PDN GW selects the PDN type to be used as follows. If th received PDN type is IPv4v6 and both IPv4 and IPv6 addressing is possible in the PDN but the Dual Address Bearer Flag is not set, or only single IP version addressing for this APN is possible in the PDN, the PDN GW selects a single IP version (either IPv4 or IPv6). If the received PDN type is IPv4 or IPv6, the PDN GW uses the received PDN type if it is supported in the PDN, otherwise an appropriate error cause will be returned. The PDN GW allocates a PDN Address according to the selected PDN type. If the PDN GW has selected a PDN type different from the received PDN Type, the PDN GW indicates together with the PDN type IE a reason cause to the UE why the PDN type has been modified, as described in clause 5.3.1.1. PDN Address may contain an IPv4 address for IPv4 and/or an IPv6 prefix and an Interface Identifier. If the PDN has been configured by the operator so that the PDN addresses for the requested APN shall be allocated by usage of DHCPv4 only, or if the PDN GW allows the UE to use DHCPv4 for address allocation according to the Address Allocation Preference received from the UE, the PDN Address shall be set to 0.0.0.0, indicating that the IPv4 PDN address shall be negotiated by the UE with DHCPv4 after completion of the Default Bearer Activation procedure. In case of external PDN addressing for IPv6, the PDN GW obtains the IPv6 prefix from the external PDN using either RADIUS or Diameter client function. In the PDN Address field of the Create Session Response, the PDN GW includes the Interface Identifier and IPv6 prefix. The PDN GW sends Router Advertisement to the UE after default bearer establishment with the IPv6 prefix information for all cases.
If the PDN address is contained in the Create Session Request, the PDN GW shall allocate the IPv4 address and/or IPv6 prefix contained in the PDN address to the UE. The IP address allocation details are described in clause 5.3.1 on “IP Address Allocation”. The PDN GW derives the BCM based on the NRSU and operator policy. Protocol Configuration Options contains the BCM as well as optional PDN parameters that the P GW may transfer to the UE. These optional PDN parameters may be requested by the UE, or may be sent unsolicited by the P GW. Protocol Configuration Options are sent transparently through the MME.

7. Create Session Response
[TS 23.401]
If the MS Info Change Reporting Action (Start) is received for this bearer context, then the S GW shall store this for the bearer context and the S GW shall report to that P GW whenever a UE’s location change occurs that meets the P GW request, as described in clause 15.1.1a of TS 23.060 [7].
The Serving GW returns a Create Session Response (PDN Type, PDN Address, Serving GW address for User Plane, Serving GW TEID for User Plane, Serving GW TEID for control plane, EPS Bearer Identity, EPS Bearer QoS, PDN GW addresses and TEIDs (GTP-based S5/S8) or GRE keys (PMIP-based S5/S8) at the PDN GW(s) for uplink traffic, Protocol Configuration Options, Charging Id, Prohibit Payload Compression, APN Restriction, Cause, MS Info Change Reporting Action (Start), APN-AMBR) message to the new MME.

8. Initial Context Setup Request/ Attach Accept[TS 23.401]
If an APN Restriction is received, then the MME shall store this value for the Bearer Context and the MME shall check this received value with the stored value for the Maximum APN Restriction to ensure there are no conflicts between values. If the Bearer Context is accepted, the MME shall determine a (new) value for the Maximum APN Restriction. If there is no previously stored value for Maximum APN Restriction, then the Maximum APN Restriction shall be set to the value of the received APN Restriction.
If the MS Info Change Reporting Action (Start) is received for this bearer context, then the MME shall store this for the bearer context and the MME shall report whenever a UE’s location change occurs that meets the request, as described in clause 15.1.1a of TS 23.060 [7].
The MME determines the UE AMBR to be used by the eNB based on the subscribed UE-AMBR and the APN AMBR for the default APN, see clause 4.7.3.
The new MME sends an Attach Accept (APN, GUTI, PDN Type, PDN Address, TAI List, EPS Bearer Identity, Session Management Request, Protocol Configuration Options, KSIASME, NAS sequence number, NAS-MAC, IMS Voice over PS session supported Indication) message to the eNodeB. GUTI is included if the new MME allocates a new GUTI. This message is contained in an S1_MME control message Initial Context Setup Request. This S1 control message also includes the AS security context information for the UE, the Handover Restriction List, the EPS Bearer QoS, the UE-AMBR, EPS Bearer Identity, as well as the TEID at the Serving GW used for user plane and the address of the Serving GW for user plane. In the Attach Accept message, the MME does not include the IPv6 prefix within the PDN Address. The MME includes the EPS Bearer QoS parameter QCI and APN-AMBR into the Session Management Request. Furthermore, if the UE has UTRAN or GERAN capabilities, the MME uses the EPS bearer QoS information to derive the corresponding PDP context parameters QoS Negotiated (R99 QoS profile), Radio Priority, Packet Flow Id and TI and includes them in the Session Management Request. If the UE indicated in the UE Network Capability it does not support BSS packet flow procedures, then the MME shall not include the Packet Flow Id. Handover Restriction List is described in clause 4.3.5.7 “Mobility Restrictions”. The MME sets the IMS Voice over PS session supported Indication as described in clause 4.3.5.8.
If the MME or PDN GW has changed the PDN Type, an appropriate reason cause shall be returned to the UE as described in clause 5.3.1.1.
9. RRC Connection Reconfiguration[TS 23.401]
The eNodeB sends the RRC Connection Reconfiguration message including the EPS Radio Bearer Identity to the UE, and the Attach Accept message will be sent along to the UE. The UE shall store the QoS Negotiated, Radio Priority, Packet Flow Id and TI, which it received in the Session Management Request, for use when accessing via GERAN or UTRAN. The APN is provided to the UE to notify it of the APN for which the activated default bearer is associated. For further details, see TS 36.331 [37]. The UE may provide EPS Bearer QoS parameters to the application handling the traffic flow(s). The application usage of the EPS Bearer QoS is implementation dependent. The UE shall not reject the RRC Connection Reconfiguration on the basis of the EPS Bearer QoS parameters contained in the Session Management Request.
When receiving the Attach Accept message the UE shall set its TIN to “GUTI” as no ISR Activated is indicated.
If the UE receives an IPv4 address set to 0.0.0.0, it may negotiate the IPv4 address with DHCPv4 as specified in TS 29.061 [38]. If the UE receives an IPv6 interface identifier, it may wait for the Router Advertisement from the network with the IPv6 prefix information or it may send a Router Solicitation if necessary.
NOTE 10:The IP address allocation details are described in clause 5.3.1 on “IP Address Allocation”.
10. RRC Connection Reconfiguration Complete[TS 23.401]
The UE sends the RRC Connection Reconfiguration Complete message to the eNodeB. For further details, see TS 36.331 [37].
11. Initial Context Setup Response[TS 23.401]
The eNodeB sends the Initial Context Response message to the new MME. This Initial Context Response message includes the TEID of the eNodeB and the address of the eNodeB used for downlink traffic on the S1_U reference point.
12. Direct Transfer[TS 23.401]
The UE sends a Direct Transfer message to the eNodeB, which includes the Attach Complete (EPS Bearer Identity, NAS sequence number, NAS-MAC) message.
13. Attach Complete[TS 23.401]
The eNodeB forwards the Attach Complete message to the new MME in an Uplink NAS Transport message.
After the Attach Accept message and once the UE has obtained a PDN Address, the UE can then send uplink packets towards the eNodeB which will then be tunnelled to the Serving GW and PDN GW. If the UE requested for a dual address PDN type (IPv4v6) to a given APN and was granted a single address PDN type (IPv4 or IPv6) by the network with a reason cause indicating that only single IP version per PDN connection is allowed sent together with the PDN type, the UE may request for the activation of a parallel PDN connection to the same APN with a single address PDN type (IPv4 or IPv6) other than the one already activated. If the UE receives no reason cause in step 18 in response to an IPv4v6 PDN type and it receives an IPv6 Interface Identifier apart from the IPv4 address or 0.0.0.0 in the PDN Address field, it considers that the request for a dual address PDN was successful. It can wait for the Router Advertisement from the network with the IPv6 prefix information or it may send Router Solicitation if necessary.
14. Modify Bearer Request[TS 23.401]
Upon reception of both, the Initial Context Response message in step 21 and the Attach Complete message in step 22, the new MME sends a Modify Bearer Request (EPS Bearer Identity, eNodeB address, eNodeB TEID, Handover Indication) message to the Serving GW.
15. Modify Bearer Response[TS 23.401]
The Serving GW acknowledges by sending Modify Bearer Response (EPS Bearer Identity) message to the new MME. The Serving GW can then send its buffered downlink packets.
—— in the next episode —–
16. P-CSCF Discovery
17. Register
18. DNS Query
19. Register
20. Diameter UAR
21. Diameter UAA
22. Register
23. Diameter MAR
24. Diameter MAA
25. 401 Unauthorized
26. 401 Unauthorized
27. 401 Unauthorized
28. Register
29. Register
30. Diameter UAR
31. Diameter UAA
32. Register
33. Diameter SAR
34. Diameter SAA
35. 200OK
36. 200OK
37. 200OK
Advertisements
Comments
  1. […] I was describing in the previous episode – 4G to IMS call flow – Register to IMS – part 1 – the IP-CAN Session Establishment is scheduled for […]

  2. […] get down to business The 4G portion of the 4G – IMS registration has been described in Part 1; The IP-CAN Session Establishment has been described in Part 2; The generic IMS specifications (at […]

  3. MANOJ DEV says:

    Hi if any one can explain 4g call flow in simple

  4. […] I was describing in the previous episode – 4G to IMS call flow – Register to IMS – part 1 – the IP-CAN Session Establishment is scheduled for […]

  5. […] 4G to IMS call flow… on 4G to IMS call flow – Register… […]

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s