Posts Tagged ‘handover’

Mwell…my dear dear journal, today I had to learn about Mobility over SAE. As we very well know, our naughty user (User Equipment) does not just stay in one single cell, but rather moves around between different antennas. As per TS 23.401 (I have studied the June edition), there are several “cases” of mobility, or handover, as the 3GPP guys call them.

What is to know about how these “cases” are delimited:

1. whether the UE only moves from one eNodeB to another (the rest of the EPS is the same) or other components (like MME and/or SGW) are also changing => X2-handover and S1-handover

2. whether or not the eNodeBs are connected each-other (when they are connected, the interface is called X2) => this results in 2 separate cases: Direct Tunneling (we have X2) and Indirect Tunneling (we don’t have X2)

3. whether or not the MME changes (is relocated, as per the TS) => no MME relocation and MME relocation scenarios

4. whether or not the SGW changes (is relocated, as per the TS) => no SGW relocation and SGW relocation scenarios

5. in each of these cases, what happens to the user-plane traffic in terms of the path it takes; the uplink usually goes directly through the new components of handover, but the downlink data is forwarded back and forth around those elements – in the diagrams attached I have represented the user-plane in dotted lines – hope you’d like it 😛

6. the user-plane flow problem appears only in the time interval that the handover is not completed, otherwise it is the usual; this is why there is only a downlink user-plane traffic described

So—let’s do this by the book.

TS 23.401, section 5.5.1.1.2 – X2-based handover with NO SGW relocation and NO MME relocation (implicit direct tunneling)

– UE moves from source eNB to target eNB, the X2 interface is present

– the downlink data flows this way: PGW -(via S5/S8)> SGW -(via S1-U)> source eNB -(via X2)> target eNB -(via LTE radio)> UE

55112

TS 23.401, section 5.5.1.1.3 – X2-based handover with SGW relocation and NO MME relocation (implicit direct tunneling)

– UE moves from source eNB to target eNB, the X2 interface is present

– the downlink data flows this way: PGW -(via S5/S8)> source SGW -(via S1-U)> target eNB -(via LTE radio)> UE

55113

* no MME relocation for X2-based handover :d

TS 23.401, section 5.5.1.2.2 – S1-based handover, NO SGW relocation and MME relocation + Direct Tunneling

– UE moves from source eNB to target eNB, the X2 interface is present

– the downlink data flows this way: PWG -(via S5/S8)> SGW -(via S1-U)> source eNB -(via X2)> target eNB -(via LTE radio)> UE

55122-dir

TS 23.401, section 5.5.1.2.2 – S1-based handover, NO SGW relocation and MME relocation + Indirect Tunneling

– UE moves from source eNB to target eNB, the X2 interface is NOT present

– the downlink data flows this way: PGW -(via S5/S8)> SGW -(via S1-U)> source eNB -(via S1-U)> SGW -(via S1-U)> target eNB -(via LTE radio)> UE

* this is the case when there are some downlink packets that have been forwarded from the SGW to the source eNB, BEFORE the handover is completed; this means that the source eNB (knowing there is a handover ongoing), resends/sends back these packets to the SGW they came from; the SGW, at this point, should be aware of the handover and buffer the packets until the handover is completed, then forward them via the appropriate S1-U to the target eNB

55122-indir

TS 23.401, section 5.5.1.2.3 – S1-based handover, SGW relocation and NO MME relocation + Indirect Tunneling

– UE moves from source eNB to target eNB, the X2 interface is NOT present

– the downlink data flows this way: PGW -(via S5/S8)> source SGW -(via S1-U)> source eNB -(via S1-U)> source SGW -(via…to check this up)> target SGW -(via S1-U)> target eNB -(via LTE radio)> UE

55123-indir-no-mme

TS 23.401, section 5.5.1.2.3 – S1-based handover, SGW relocation and MME relocation + Direct Tunneling

– UE moves from source eNB to target eNB, the X2 interface is present

– the downlink data flows this way: PGW -(via S5/S8)> source SGW -(via S1-U)> source eNB -(via X2)> target eNB -(via LTE radio)> UE

55123-dir

TS 23.401, section 5.5.1.2.3 – S1-based handover, SGW relocation and MME relocation + Indirect Tunneling

55123-indir

– UE moves from source eNB to target eNB, the X2 interface is NOT present

– the downlink data flows this way: PGW -(via S5/S8)> source SGW -(via S1-U)> source eNB -(via S1-U)> source SGW -(via…to check this up)> target SGW -(via S1-U)> target eNB -(via LTE radio)> UE

 

The signaling required for these handovers are described in TS 23.401 as a flow and in TS 29.274 at the IE level.

I will try to describe each flow (or at least the most significant ones) in future articles. Enjoy :p

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At first, I thought I was too noob to understand this stuff. I still consider myself a noob, but the way these TSs are written sometimes really gets on my nerves.

Let’s just consider the case of the S1-based handover with MME relocation and SGW relocation and Indirect Tunneling – meaning there is no X2 link between the source and target eNBs. All I can do for the moment is to look at the S11 interface, because this is the one I have the opportunity to study at this point.

So, the 2 TSs involved in this case, at least at the high  level are TS 23.401 – which describes the message flows between the SAE entities and TS 29.274 – which describes each message and its IEs.

The S1 based handover with MME/SGW relocation and Indirect Tunneling looks something like this:

55123-indir

In order to make this more human-readable, I have considered the following scenario:

mme2

where my UE (UE-1) moves from eNB 30.0.0.1 to eNB 30.0.0.5 (which have an X2 link together) – doing X2 handover (with no MME relocation), then it moves from eNB 30.0.0.5 to eNB 30.0.0.8 (which don’t have an X2 link between them). As you can see from the picture, these 2 eNBs belong to 2 different MMEs and SGWs. This means that, when the UE moves from eNB5 (30.0.0.5) to eNB8(30.0.0.8), it will generate an S1 handover signaling between the source MME – MME1 (30.0.1.1), source SGW – SGW1 (30.0.2.1), target MME – MME4 (30.0.1.4) and target SGW – SGW2 (30.0.2.2). As there is no X2 link between eNB5 and eNB5, the downlink packets coming from the PGW while the UE is in the handover process with reach eNB5, then they will be “reflected” back to SG1, which will then forward them via an “indirect” tunnel to SGW2, which will forward them to the new eNB8, which is in charge of my UE.

The flow is like this (3GPP copy-pasted 🙂 )

ts1

1)  So, as this picture states, once the handover is decided, the source MME sends a Forward Relocation Request to the target MME. This message must at least contain the following mandatory IEs, as per TS 29.274:

– IMSI

– Sender’s F-TEID for Control Plane

– MME/SGSN UE EPS PDN Connections

– SGW S11/S4 IP Address and TEID for Control Plane

– MME/SGSN UE MM Context

2) Then the target MME sends a Create Session Request message to the target SGW, including (M == Mandatory):

– IMSI (M)

– RAT Type – here is E-UTRAN (M)

– Sender F-TEID for Control Plane – here it is the IP address of the source MME: 30.0.1.4 + it’s TEID/GRE Key (this “key” is actually a hexadecimal number on 2 bytes) (M)

– APN Name (M)

– Maximum APN Restriction (M)

– LBI – Linked EPS Bearer ID – indicates the default bearer of the connection – the ID of the default bearer, usually this has value 5 (C)

– PGW S5/S8 Address for Control Plane or PMIP – this is the IP address of the PGW: 20.0.0.1 (C)

3) the target SGW replies to the target MME with a Create Session Response message, containing:

– Cause (M)

– Sender F-TEID for Control Plane – this is the IP address of the target SGW: 30.0.2.2 (C)

– APN Restriction (M)

– Bearer Contexts created (M) – this means that all the bearers that have the OK to be created for the UE in question are going to be present here, in a separate group IE; the IEs within a Bearer Context have the following:

— EBI – EPS Bearer ID (M)

— Cause (M)

— S1-U SGW F-TEID – the IP address of the SGW used for user-plane and a TEID/GRE identifier on 2 bytes – this is usually the same identifier used for the initial traffic of this user, _before_ the handover, let’s just call it Key-A – which is the uplink identifier for the user (C)

— Bearer Level QoS – the new QoS parameters, if they have been changed (C)

** Let’s stop for a second a recap. What do I have at this point? I have an UE (UE-1 in the picture) with an IP address (let’s say: 40.0.0.91). It is attached to the eNB 30.0.0.5, having a default bearer in place with the MME 30.0.1.1 (source) and the SGW 30.0.2.1 (source). This default bearer has an uplink identifier TEID, called as above Key-A, which also has a downlink identifier TEID, called Key-1. Let’s say that what travels in uplink has a key made out of letters, and what travels in downlink has keys made out of numbers 🙂

Ooook, what’s next. Well, as my UE moves to eNB 30.0.0.8, AND there is no X2 link between eNB5 and eNB8, target MME creates an indirect tunnel for the packets. Once the UE has moved to eNB8, the uplink flows directly from this new eNB, to the new SGW and so on. So, the indirect path is for the downlink packets, more precisely, for THOSE downlink packets that have already been routed by the source SGW to the source eNB (eNB5). eNB5 cannot contact eNB8 directly, so it re-routes these packets back to the source SGW, which will also re-route them via this indirect tunnel to the target SGW – which has direct S1-U connectivity to the target eNB to deliver the packets to my dear UE 🙂

How does EPC do that?

4) Target MME (30.0.1.4) sends a Create Indirect Data Forwarding Tunnel Request message to the Target SGW (30.0.2.2), containing all the grouped IEs Bearer Contexts that are to be forwarded this way, this grouped IE being the only Mandatory IE in this message. This Bearer Context IE contains:

— EBI – EPS Bearer ID (M)

— S1-U eNodeB F-TEID for data forwarding – this is the IP address of the target eNB (30.0.0.8) and its associated TEID/GRE key, let’s call it Key -2. This key instructs the target SGW about the destination of the packets for my UE (C)

5) then the Target SGW (30.0.2.2) responds to this message with a Create Indirect Data Forwarding Tunnel Response message. This message has 2 Mandatory IEs: the Cause and the Bearer Contexts grouped IE. This Bearer Context IE has:

— EBI (M)

— Cause (M)

— S1-U SGW F-TEID for data forwarding – this is the IP address of the target SGW and its TEID/GRE identifier – Key-B

6) After this, the target MME sends a Forward Relocation Response message to the source MME, instructing it about the bearers that have been accepted for creation on this indirect path

7) Now, the source MME (30.0.1.1) sends a Create Indirect Data Forwarding Tunnel Request to the source SGW (30.0.2.1), with elements similar to the corresponding message above, except that in this case, the Bearer Context has the TEID/GRE identifiers of the target SGW, contained in the Create Indirect Data Forwarding Tunnel Response from above – Key-B – when source SGW will forward the packets to target SGW, this will be the GRE Identifier used for encapsulating those packets

8) The source SGW responds with a Create Indirect Data Forwarding Tunnel Response message, same as above, but the TEID/GRE ID is the one of the IP address of the source SGW. This ID shall be used for uplink data on the indirect tunnel from the source eNB to the source SGW. Let’s call this ID Key-3.

*** At this point, we have an indirect tunnel created between the following entities:

source eNB (30.0.0.5) -> source SGW (30.0.2.1) : TEID Key-3

source SGW (30.0.2.1) -> target SGW (30.0.2.2) : TEID  Key-B

target SGW (30.0.2.2) -> target eNB (30.0.0.8) : TEID Key-2

At this point, the user traffic is like this:

traffic

1: packets already forwarded by the source SGW to the source eNB are “reflected” by this eNB – use the downlink GRE ID established initially, Key-1

2: the reflected packets from source eNB back to source SGW use the GRE negotiated via the messages above: Key-3

3: packets then travel on the tunnel from source to target SGW, via the TEID/GRE ID: Key-B

4: then the target SGW finally forwards the packets down to the target eNB via GRE ID: Key-2

*** During all this complicated process, the uplink is already using the target eNB as source for the encapsulating tunnel

So, what happens afterwards?

9) the target MME sends a Modify Bearer Request message to the target SGW, describing the newly created tunnels for downlink, not the indirect ones, the usual, direct ones and the target SGW replies with a Modify Bearer Response message in order to acknowledge (or state a cause for rejecting) this

10) the source MME deletes its session from its (source) SGW, using a Delete Session Request /  Delete Session Response pair of messages, carefully indicating the SGW that this is only a “local detach” of the UE, not a complete detach, meaning that the UE just moved and the local information about it is no longer valid, NOT that the UE disappeared from the network and the resources are to be deleted !

11) 12) both pairs of source and target MME/SGW now delete the indirect tunnel by exchanging the Delete Indirect Data Forwarding Tunnel Request / Delete Indirect Data Forwarding Tunnel Response messages.

And everybody is happy.

EXCEPT Me, because there are a lot of misleading and confusing “explanations” in the specs regarding this type of scenarios, like for instance:

a) one spec (TS 23.401) states that the delete session procedure should have Cause and LBI IEs in the Create Session Request message, while TS 29.274 defines these 2 IEs as Conditional, and, as per the condition in place, none of them should appear in this message when the source MME disconnects from the source SGW. Instead, the SGW should look at the Indication Flags in this request: if the Operation Indication is set, then this is a full detach, if the Scope Indication is set, this is a local detach.

b) look at the above flags: shouldn’t it be better to have just 1 flag, and, if it is set, we have a full detach, otherwise we have a local detach?

c) what happens in the S1 handover with no SGW relocation (whether or not the MME is relocated) and Indirect Tunneling? How is that going? Do I still send the two pairs of Create Indirect Data Forwarding Tunnel Request/Response?

and more to come

3g to 4g – abracadabra

Posted: January 21, 2011 in technical
Tags: , , , , , , ,

Hello, again! Missed me?

Mwell, if you do, then you’ll be happy to see I am still here, live and kicking. Lately I’ve focused on writing stuff for my PhD and therefore no techie article and very slow reply to answers (promise to get back to those who still have no answers to their inquires). Today, applauses for the 3GPP guys: they don’t expect the operators to simply put a Stop to whatever they were doing, upgrade to 4G every piece of their equipment, then Start over. Au contraire…mon frere 😛 They provide a way (actually, 2 ways) of gradually upgrading a 2G/3G network to a 4G fancy network.

Today, I’m gonna present briefly one of them: Iu mode inter-RAT Handover. This is also a subject for my next article – but I’m not going to copy-paste it, as it might get rejected.

First of all, let’s take a quick look at how those fancy network equipments connect to each other in a 3G-4G handover case.

inter-rat-ho-NO-GGSN

Mwell. So, what do you have here?

From the 3G side….(applauses…applauses): a RNC and a SGSN. We assume our UE is connected to a 3G network. But, as the operator has (at least partially) upgraded to 4G, there is no more GGSN. The SGSN is connected to the SGW via S12 interface. Unlike MME, which is a dedicated control-plane device, the SGSN transfers both control-plane and user-plane information.  The simply dotted lines in the picture represent the air interface. The dotted and stroke connections represent interfaces where there are two types of traffic being delivered: control-plane and data-plane.

On the 4G side, the usual and familiar elements: eNB, MME, SGW. The PGW, HSS and PCRF are there to stay.

The SGSN talks to the MME via the S3 interface. And, in this case, the handover will directly forward packets from the source RNC to the target SGW via the S12 interface. If you consider that the S12 interface does not exists, then we are facing a case similar to what we call “indirect tunneling” in the intra-EUTRAN handovers. In this case, when the source RNChas no direct way of forwarding the UE’s packets (those that are sent in downlink after the UE had already moved to 4G) to the target SGW, it will use the S4 interface to forward these packets to a dedicated SGW for indirect tunneling.

Without detailing each packet (maybe later on, on another post), let’s have a quick look at the message exchange between these entities in the 3G to 4H handover scenario. ! My picture ! (long live good old “dia” software)

ho-3g-4g

Yes, there is some TAU also, as far as I understand from the TS 23.401, in these inter-RAT handovers, the TAU always takes place. And also, the TAU packets carry a most important information: the updated security credentials of the new 4G connection…

This one should be shorter, because I only have the questions, not the answers for all 😛 . Fortunately, there is one guy that strives to make me understand stuff. Hopefully, tonight his wife won’t beat his ass and let him write a post that (hopefully) would clarify some of my dilemmas:

(10:01:13 AM) Cristina: dunno..in a few days 🙂 I still have the week-end
(10:01:28 AM) Cristina: and..more importantly..I want to understand
(10:01:42 AM) SD: how about I write a nice article describing TAU tonight
(10:01:49 AM) SD: or by early tomorrow and send it to u?

So, till then:

Q1: When does the TAU relocate MME/SGW?

A1: see table

reloc

Q2: Why doesn’t the ECM-CONNECTED relocate MME/SGW?

A2: Because, if the UE is ECM-CONNECTED and it moves to an eNB that may require the relocation of both MME and SGW, there will be a Handover taking place. This Handover will relocate the MME and the SGW (as necessary). Then, the TAU’s place comes. But at this point, the UE is already behind the new eNB and the Handover took care of the “relocation” dilemmas. So, the TAU will only update the Network with the new UE’s location, without changing MME, nor SGW.

Q3: [Timing dilemmas] Scenario:

– UE is in ECM-IDLE

– UE moves to a new TAL, so it has to do TAU with MME relocation and SGW relocation (or just one of them, but at least one is relocated via TAU)

– then UE needs to do some traffic, so it becomes ECM-CONNECTED

What happens with the Handover in this case? Does it take place anymore? And what type of Handover would be – if it takes place?

Q4: Generic dilemma: I know that TAU and Handover are “independent”. Handover is always network-triggered, while TAU can be triggered by eNB or MME. Still, it seems to me they are very connected together right now.

Everybody knows about this Quality of Service thinggie that helps admins to classify traffic and better allocate network and system resources to accommodate traffic needs and also to enforce the policies that exist for each user/groups of users – basically according to the amount of money they pay for this service 😛

In order to enforce a QoS on SAE entities, there are a few things to keep in mind:

A. PCRF – Policy Charging Rules Function device, which basically is a database that holds specific service QoS associations for each UE – this device is interrogated by the PGW in order to find out which QoS is applied on which traffic for each UE that requests a dedicated bearer

B. HSS – Home Subscriber Server, which has _nothing_ to do with QoS; this is a static database that holds information about the UE as is, and no information about any SLA of that UE with the provider

C. Only dedicated bearers hold a QoS level as part of their TFT association

D. The QoS on SAE has multiple variants, dividing the bearers into 2 groups:

GBR bearers (Guaranteed Bit Rate)

non-GBR bearers

E. The TFT (Traffic Flow Template – containing the filtering components for the traffic) that is associated with a bearer is not per flow, but per direction:

TFT-UL (TFT uplink)

TFT -DL (TFT downlink)

Also, the TFT can be:

bearer-level

SDF-level (service data flow level)

Now, we are interested in the GBR bearers. The GBR profile includes the following parameters:

1. QCI – QoS Class Identifier

Rules:

a. 1 QCI corresponds to 1 bearer only

b. 2 services having different QCI values can NOT be on the same bearer (TFT)

c. 2 services having the different QCI values can NOT have the same ARP (see below) value

d. QCI values must belong to [1..255]

2. ARP – Allocation & Retention Priority

Rules:

a. this value has NO influence on QoS

b. this value is set per eNB, following the PGW’s decision

c. it is established by PCRF according to a tuple of —activity type — subscription information — admission policies—

3. GBR – Guaranteed Bit Rate

4. MBR – Maximum Bit Rate

** There are also aggregated GBR bearers: AMBR (this is per APN) and UE-AMBR (the per-non-GBR, per UE rate) — [note to myself] to study more on this!

***Things to consider:

Thinking about the Mobility/Handover scenarios, keep in mind that, when a UE moves from one eNB to another, or from one MME to another, or from one SGW to another, the QoS is enforced on ALL the EPS components. This means that the QCI, ARP, GBR, MBR rates will all be verified on the resources of the destination (destination eNB, destination MME and so on). This means further on that, should at least one of the components not have enough resources to sustain all the QoS of a specific UE, some bearers will be dropped – this, again, is a decision of the SGW, taking into consideration, of course, the signaling came from the rest of the components.

[courtesy of my LTE guru colleagues]