Posts Tagged ‘S1-U’

Mwell…my dear dear journal, today I had to learn about Mobility over SAE. As we very well know, our naughty user (User Equipment) does not just stay in one single cell, but rather moves around between different antennas. As per TS 23.401 (I have studied the June edition), there are several “cases” of mobility, or handover, as the 3GPP guys call them.

What is to know about how these “cases” are delimited:

1. whether the UE only moves from one eNodeB to another (the rest of the EPS is the same) or other components (like MME and/or SGW) are also changing => X2-handover and S1-handover

2. whether or not the eNodeBs are connected each-other (when they are connected, the interface is called X2) => this results in 2 separate cases: Direct Tunneling (we have X2) and Indirect Tunneling (we don’t have X2)

3. whether or not the MME changes (is relocated, as per the TS) => no MME relocation and MME relocation scenarios

4. whether or not the SGW changes (is relocated, as per the TS) => no SGW relocation and SGW relocation scenarios

5. in each of these cases, what happens to the user-plane traffic in terms of the path it takes; the uplink usually goes directly through the new components of handover, but the downlink data is forwarded back and forth around those elements – in the diagrams attached I have represented the user-plane in dotted lines – hope you’d like it 😛

6. the user-plane flow problem appears only in the time interval that the handover is not completed, otherwise it is the usual; this is why there is only a downlink user-plane traffic described

So—let’s do this by the book.

TS 23.401, section 5.5.1.1.2 – X2-based handover with NO SGW relocation and NO MME relocation (implicit direct tunneling)

– UE moves from source eNB to target eNB, the X2 interface is present

– the downlink data flows this way: PGW -(via S5/S8)> SGW -(via S1-U)> source eNB -(via X2)> target eNB -(via LTE radio)> UE

55112

TS 23.401, section 5.5.1.1.3 – X2-based handover with SGW relocation and NO MME relocation (implicit direct tunneling)

– UE moves from source eNB to target eNB, the X2 interface is present

– the downlink data flows this way: PGW -(via S5/S8)> source SGW -(via S1-U)> target eNB -(via LTE radio)> UE

55113

* no MME relocation for X2-based handover :d

TS 23.401, section 5.5.1.2.2 – S1-based handover, NO SGW relocation and MME relocation + Direct Tunneling

– UE moves from source eNB to target eNB, the X2 interface is present

– the downlink data flows this way: PWG -(via S5/S8)> SGW -(via S1-U)> source eNB -(via X2)> target eNB -(via LTE radio)> UE

55122-dir

TS 23.401, section 5.5.1.2.2 – S1-based handover, NO SGW relocation and MME relocation + Indirect Tunneling

– UE moves from source eNB to target eNB, the X2 interface is NOT present

– the downlink data flows this way: PGW -(via S5/S8)> SGW -(via S1-U)> source eNB -(via S1-U)> SGW -(via S1-U)> target eNB -(via LTE radio)> UE

* this is the case when there are some downlink packets that have been forwarded from the SGW to the source eNB, BEFORE the handover is completed; this means that the source eNB (knowing there is a handover ongoing), resends/sends back these packets to the SGW they came from; the SGW, at this point, should be aware of the handover and buffer the packets until the handover is completed, then forward them via the appropriate S1-U to the target eNB

55122-indir

TS 23.401, section 5.5.1.2.3 – S1-based handover, SGW relocation and NO MME relocation + Indirect Tunneling

– UE moves from source eNB to target eNB, the X2 interface is NOT present

– the downlink data flows this way: PGW -(via S5/S8)> source SGW -(via S1-U)> source eNB -(via S1-U)> source SGW -(via…to check this up)> target SGW -(via S1-U)> target eNB -(via LTE radio)> UE

55123-indir-no-mme

TS 23.401, section 5.5.1.2.3 – S1-based handover, SGW relocation and MME relocation + Direct Tunneling

– UE moves from source eNB to target eNB, the X2 interface is present

– the downlink data flows this way: PGW -(via S5/S8)> source SGW -(via S1-U)> source eNB -(via X2)> target eNB -(via LTE radio)> UE

55123-dir

TS 23.401, section 5.5.1.2.3 – S1-based handover, SGW relocation and MME relocation + Indirect Tunneling

55123-indir

– UE moves from source eNB to target eNB, the X2 interface is NOT present

– the downlink data flows this way: PGW -(via S5/S8)> source SGW -(via S1-U)> source eNB -(via S1-U)> source SGW -(via…to check this up)> target SGW -(via S1-U)> target eNB -(via LTE radio)> UE

 

The signaling required for these handovers are described in TS 23.401 as a flow and in TS 29.274 at the IE level.

I will try to describe each flow (or at least the most significant ones) in future articles. Enjoy :p

Advertisements

As I was saying in a previous post, Bearers are structures that define a single QoS traffic between eNB – MME – SGW – PGW. They are created via GTP-C (control GTP) negotiation, and have effect on the actual traffic that flows between these entities (GTP-U – User plane). There 2 types of bearers: default bearers and dedicated bearers. While the default bearers are created by default during the Initial Attach procedure, simply stating that the UE is “logged in” the network (and usually no User plane traffic is permitted over these bearers), the dedicated bearers are created specifically when a particular type of application needs to send traffic over the network. If this happens, the network (here read PGW in correspondence with PCRF) looks at its QoS level. Should there be a TFT (associated to a dedicated bearer) already created for that application, the network simply uses that bearer to pass on those IP packets, otherwise it creates a new, dedicated, bearer, with a QoS specific to the needs of the application in question.

So… How is this “default bearer” created after all?

The most usual case is when the MME sends a Modify Bearer Request to the SGW. This message is a simple UDP packet, with destination port 2123, encapsulated as GTPv2. Its content looks like this:

– Flags: showing GTP version (2)

– Type of Message: “Modify Bearer Request”

– Length of Message: 30

– T-EID (Tunnel Endpoint Identifier) of the GTP-C on S11 (between MME and SGW)

– EPS Bearer ID

– F-TEID (Fully Qualified Tunnel Endpoint Identifier) which indicates the type of IP address (here it is IPv4), the type of interface where the bearer would take place (it is S1-U – S1 – User plane, the interface between the eNB served by the MME in question and the SGW in question)

** Why is this S1-U? Why this interface? Why a “U” interface? Because the purpose of the GTP-C is to negotiate the GTP-U part. Basically, via these GTP-C messages I am negotiating which are the GTP-U interfaces that will transfer the actual data. And, as MME is ONLY a GTP-C entity, it has the role of negotiating the bearers that will carry the traffic between the GTP-U entities, here eNB and SGW. So, the GTP-C passes through MME, while GTP-U does not. This is why I can see on the GTP-C message sent from MME to SGW the TEID of a S1 interface, rather than a S11 interface.

– F-TEID IPv4 – this is the IP address of the eNB, in this case 40.0.0.3

** This F-TEID IPv4 is the actual IP address that eNB will use in order to send data-plane packets flowing between UE and PDN. As the path of the GTP-U is between UE – eNB – SGW – PGW – PDN ( the MME only appears in the GTP-C flow), the F-TEID IPv4 address here should have layer 3 connectivity with the SGW IP address. I had a rough time today trying to understand why on earth my GTP-U traffic disappeared, while I was having the eNB and SGW IP addresses on two different subnets and no router to route packets from one subnet to another – smarty, I know 😛

The Modify Bearer Request packet looks something like this:

Screen-shot-2010-02-15-at-10.28.51-PM

If the MME has been a good kid (and the UE also), the SGW acknowledges its request and responds with a Modify Bearer Response packet having as Cause : Request accepted. The fields of this packet are the following:

– Flags – indicating the GTPv2 and some other stuff

– Cause – has the IE (Information Element) type, which is 2 here, Cause being Request Accepted and the ID of the Cause is 0 (it should be different than 0 if the request were not accepted)

– Bearer Context – this indicates that the SGW reserved resources for a new context (default one) and instructs the eNB and the PGW to do the same; this field contains the

– – –  EPS Bearer ID : 5

– – – Cause subfield : indicates “Request accepted”

– – – F-TEID: type of IPv4, the interface is S1-U (S1 – User plane between eNB and SGW) and the F-TEID IP is the IP address of the SGW (40.0.0.2)

Basically this message confirms the creation of the Default Bearer, the reservation of the network resources for the traffic flowing over this bearer (if any). The user is officially logged in the network and has the first, most simple and non-priviledged session with the PDN.

The Modify Bearer Response packet looks something like this:

Screen-shot-2010-02-15-at-10.37.12-PM

Screen-shot-2010-02-15-at-10.37.43-PM