Posts Tagged ‘VoLTE’

Ref:

CSFB vs. SRVCC, or how to “sudo make me Voice over LTE” – take 1

CSFB vs. SRVCC, or how to “sudo make me Voice over LTE” – take 2

by Alex

it was about time to display a nice message flow diagram of the messages being exchanged for Combined EPS/IMSI Attach

Enjoy!

combined

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continuing the CSFB vs. SRVCC, or how to “sudo make me Voice over LTE” – take 1 series, by Alex

I was thinking the other day and I realized that CSFB is meant to be used only if VoLTE cannot be used for some reason. That sounded strange to me as in order to be able to use CSCF you need the special combined EPS/IMSI attach but in some cases you may find yourself unable to use VoLTE after you attach. On example of such case is when the network prefers VoLTE and the UE is able to do VoLTE but IMS voice is not available (for example the registration to the IMS network fails).  To find the answer to my questions I turned to TS 23.221, maybe it can help in some way.

What I found is than an UE can be either voice centric or data centric. This usage setting basically tells the network what’s more important for that UE (voice or data). For example a voice centric UE will disconnect from E-UTRAN and try GERAN/UTRAN if it is not able to obtain voice service in E-UTRAN while a data centric UE will not do that.

Now, there’s another setting on the UE which is called voice domain preference and has one of four values CS Voice only, IMS PS Voice only, CS voice preferred, IMS PS Voice as secondary, IMS PS voice preferred, CS Voice as secondary.  Based on these 2 settings and what happens in the network the UE will prefer one of the following 4 states:

 

Voice centric UE

Data centric UE

CS Voice preferred/ CS Voice only

CS/PS mode 1

CS/PS mode 2

IMS PS Voice preferred/ IMS PS Voice only

PS mode 1

PS mode 2

* an IMS PS Voice preferred UE may still be connected to both systems.

* an IMS PS Voice Only UE will not use combined attach or CSFB

*TS 23.221 Annex A gives guidance on how a CS and IMS capable UE should behave.

On the other hand, the network has its settings and preferences too. When an UE attempts to do a combined attach, the network may inform the UE of its settings, like CS Fallback not preferred, SMS-only (the CS network is to be used to SMS over SGs only, not for CSFB) or IMS voice not available. The UE may transition between these states if its settings or the network’s settings change. Also an UE in a PS mode state will transition to the corresponding CS/PS mode state if IMS is unavailable for some reason.

Now, in order to do CSFB or SMS over SGs one needs to be in one of the CS/PS modes. To be in one of these modes the UE needs to do a combined EPS/IMSI attach. Now let’s say our UE is set to prefer the IMS for voice calls but its registration to the IMS network fails for some reason or the network indicates to the UE it does not support PS voice. In this case the UE is already connected to the EPS network but most likely not to the CS network and in order to use CSFB it needs to transition to a combined EPS/IMSI attach situation. To do this the UE will do a Combined TA/LA Update Procedure (TS 23.272 section 5.4.1).

Later edit:

Relevant specs for the UICC side:

TS 24.008 – Layer 3 specifications, Core network protocols

TS 31.102 – USIM Applications

Why? : Because I would like to see in more detail how this entire CSFB/SRVCC story happens at the UE+UICC(SIM) level.

Finally, I’ve managed to get my favourite real-life geek (the non-real-life geek is Spencer Reed) to write an article (which shall become a series, I hope) for my blog. Here it goes, Alex.

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The other day I realised that working in the 4G/EPC field has some advantages. One is that I get to see how things work and that is the coolest thing, but sometimes you realise things are so complicated it may be a good idea to wait for a while before upgrading.   Take for example the voice calls. In order to do voice calls in 4G you have 2 major options:

1.       VoLTE  which is VoIP using the 4G  (LTE and EPC devices) and IMS network – this is how things should be done in a real 4G network

2.       CSFB (Circuit Switched (CS) fallback TS 23.272) which means that when the UE(phone) needs to make or receive a call it is moved to an older 3GPP technology (2G/3G). This mechanism is used if the IMS network is not available or the UE is not able to do VoLTE for some reason (for example registration to the IMS network failed)

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